Get out of debt NOW! http://www.newdebtelimination.com 'The United States, a private for profit Federal Corporation, is bankrupt and has to pay our bills The united states “…is a corporation, a legal fiction that existed well before the Revolutionary War.” Republica v. Sween, 1 Dallas 43.
United States Code Title 28, Part VI, Chapter 176, Subchapter A, § 3002; (15) “United States” means, (A) a Federal corporation
1933 March 9, a bank emergency was declared by President Roosevelt because of the insolvency [bankruptcy] of the United States. Executive Order 6073, 6102, 6111, 6260; Senate Report 93-549, pgs. 187 & 594, 1973.
If the other party in your case has answered or appeared, and you need to file additional documents in your court case, you will need to deliver a copy of the document to the other party. This is called serving the document.
You can serve the document on the other party if he or she does not have a lawyer. If the other party has a lawyer, you should serve the party’s lawyer.
Documents are often served on the other party by certified mail, return receipt requested, sent to the other party at his or her last known address (or to his or her attorney’s address). When you receive the green card, with the other party’s or the attorney’s signature, you and the Court will know that he or she received a copy of the document. The Rules of Civil Procedure also allow you to hand deliver or fax the document. You are also allowed to use a delivery service. Texas Rules of Civil Procedure, 21 (a).
Any document you serve on the other party must include a paragraph describing how you served the document. This is called a Certificate of Service.
A sample Certificate of Service looks like this:
Certificate of Service
I certify that a complete copy of the above was served on
, [PRINT the first and last name of the person you served.]
by : [Choose one]
certified mail, return receipt requested, certificate # ,
[PRINT certificate number from green card.]
at the following address: ,
fax, to the following number: ,
on , [PRINT month, day and year.]
[SIGN your first and last names.] Petitioner, Pro se
Employment with the Dept. of Justice as a Deputy U.S Marshal, his primary jurisdiction nationwide in conducting and investigating felon fugitive matters involving escaped federal prisoners, probation, parole, and bond default violators, and warrants generated by Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) investigations and certain other related felony cases. Domestic Criminal Investigations,Fugitive Task Forces, International Investigations, Electronic Surveillance Unit provides covert support such as telephone monitoring, electronic tracking and audio-video recording. Analytical Support Unit researches information during fugitive investigations and also oversees the Warrant Information Network, Protecting the Courts Providing personal protection to federal judges, court officials, witnesses,Prisoner Custody and Transportation of individuals arrested by all federal agencies and responsible for the housing and transportation of prisoners from the time they are brought into federal custody until they are either acquitted or incarcerated. Prisoner Medical Care, Witness Security provides for the security, health, and safety of government witnesses, and their immediate dependents. Asset Seizure and Forfeiture, Special Operations Group is a specially-trained and highly-disciplined tactical unit. SOG is a self-supporting response team capable of responding to emergencies anywhere in the United States or its territories. Missile Escort And Judgment Enforcement Teams. In his tenure with the company Talon System from 1983-1984, Chief Murray was the Administrative Director of Weapons Training for State Department Diplomatic Security Team. Teaching officers weapon awareness use of deadly force and hostage negotiations.
United States, a private for profit Federal Corporation, is bankrupt
and has to pay our bills
states “…is a corporation, a legal fiction that existed well
before the Revolutionary War.”
v. Sween, 1 Dallas 43.
States Code Title 28, Part VI, Chapter 176, Subchapter A, §
“United States” means, (A) a Federal corporation
March 9, a bank emergency was declared by
President Roosevelt because of the insolvency [bankruptcy]
of the United States. Executive Order 6073, 6102, 6111, 6260; Senate
Report 93-549, pgs. 187 & 594, 1973.
March 9,“The new money (paper
promissory notes) is issued to the banks in return for Government
obligations, bills of
exchange, drafts, notes, trade acceptances, and banker’s
acceptances. The new money will be worth 100 cents on the dollar,
because it is backed by the credit of the nation. It will
represent a mortgage
on all the homes and other
of all the people in the Nation.” Senate Document No. 43, 73rd
Congressional Record, 1st Session.
May 1, gold was transferred [stolen] from U. S. Citizens to the
United States by Executive Order 6102.
May 23, Congressman, Louis T. McFadden brought formal
charges (Congressional Record May 23, 1933 page
4055-4058) against the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve
Bank system, The Comptroller of the Currency and the Secretary of
United States Treasury for numerous criminal acts, including but
not limited to, conspiracy, fraud, unlawful conversion and treason.
The petition for Articles of Impeachment was thereafter referred to
the Judiciary Committee and has yet to be acted on.
June 5, to mitigate McFadden’s charges (and prevent being hung for
treason), Congress passed House Joint Resolution 192 to provide U. S.
right to set off all debt obligations as
the consideration (something bargained for i.e., an exchange) for the
transfer of all the gold and property. It is against Public Policy to
pay a debt. Chap. 48, 48 Stat. 112 in the United States Statutes at
Large is Public Law.
Congress declared “bankruptcy and reorganization“. Secretary of
Treasury appointed receiver in the bankruptcy. Reorganization Plan,
No. 26, 5 U.S.C.A. 903; Public Law 94-564; Legislative History, Pg.
“Since March 9th, 1933, the United States has been in a state
ofdeclared national emergency (bankruptcy)…”
Resolution 9, 93d. Congress, 1st. Session, Foreward. The president
signs [renews] this every year.
Oct. 28th, the United States as a “Corporator” and “State”
declared insolvency. State banks and most other banks were put under
control of the “Governor” (Secretary of the U. S. Treasury) of
the “Fund” (I.M.F.). 26 IRC 165 (g)(1); U.C.C. 1-201(23), C.R.S.
39-22-103.5, Westfall vs. Braley, 10 Ohio 188, 75 Am. Dec. 509, Adams
vs. Richardson, 337 S.W. 2d. 911; Ward vs. Smith, 7 Wall 447.
March 17th, United States Congressional Record, Vol. 33, page H-1303.
Speaker-Rep. James Traficant, Jr. (Ohio) addressing the House: “Mr.
Speaker, we are here now in chapter 11.. Members of
Congress are official trusteespresiding over the greatest
reorganization of any Bankrupt entity in world history, the
U. S. Government.”
is an established fact that the United States Federal Government has
been dissolved by the Emergency Banking Act, March 9, 1933, 48 Stat.
1, Public Law 89-719; declared by President Roosevelt, being bankrupt
and insolvent. H.J.R. 192, 73rd Congress June 5, 1933 – Joint
Resolution To Suspend The Gold Standard and Abrogate The Gold Clause
dissolved the Sovereign Authority of the United States and the
official capacities of all United States Governmental Offices,
Officers, and Departments and is further evidence that the United
States Federal Government exists today in name only.
see the Clearfield Doctrine]
SUBSTANCE of the American citizenry, their real property, wealth,
assets and productivity that belongs to them, was pledged by the
government and placed at risk as the collateral for US debt,
credit, and currency for commerce to function.
the 14th amendment and numerous Supreme Court precedents, as well as
in equity, private property cannot be taken or pledged for public use
without just compensation or due process of law. The United States
cannotpledge or risk the property and wealth of its PRIVATE
CITIZENS for any government purpose without legally providing
them remedy to recover what is due them on their risk.
Courts have long ruled that to have one’s property legally held as
collateral or surety for a debt, even when one still owns it and
still has it, is to DEPRIVE him of it since it is at risk
and could be lost for the debt at any time.
United States Supreme Court said that, the Constitution provides that
“private property shall not be taken for public use without just
compensation.” United States v. Russell, 13 Wall, 623, 627.
compelled to pay debts for their Principal have been deemedentitled
to reimbursement, even without a contractual promise…”
Pearlman v. Reliance Ins. Co., 371 U.S. 132, 1962
States Code Title 31 section 3123 states that the US Government
has an obligation to pay ‘dollar for dollar’ principal and
interest in legal tenderALL debts accrued by the American
backing the nation’s credit and currency cannot recover what is due
them by anything drawn on Federal Reserve notes without expanding
their risk and obligation to their own selves. Any recovery payments
backed by this currency (FRNs or Federal Reserve Accounting Unit
Devices; F.R.A.U.D.s) would only increase the public debt its
citizens are collateral for, which an equitable REMEDY was intended
to reduce, and in equity would not satisfy anything, for there was no
longer actual money of substance to pay anybody. In other words,
there is no actual money in circulation by which debt owed from one
party to another can actually be repaid. Since 1933 no one has ever
really been “paid” because there’s been no money of substance.
Every time we spend a Federal Reserve note (dollar) we increase the
national debt by that same amount. Every time we send our bills
to Treasury for the set off we reduce the national debt by that same
amount and its our duty to do so. Federal Reserve Publication
“Public Debt, Private Asset” says the national debt is owed to
its creditors which is you and me.
are operating under official Public Policy and Public Law set forth
by the UNITED STATES when they confiscated all the lawful money in
circulation in 1933 and it became impossible to pay any debts with
publicly sanctioned money under the provision of the United States
Constitution, Article One, Section ten, Clause one. In return
for the confiscation of the lawful money, the UNITED STATES became
liable to pay the debts of the people as fiduciary creditors
[Trustees] of the people. Since all commercial energy in
existence comes from the mental and physical powers of the living
people, and not from corporations or government, it is these living
people who are the lenders or creditors to all of society. Everything
built since 1933 has been done by borrowing against our credit!
government needed to account for how much commercial energy it owed
each and every one of us, the ultimate creditors, for our
contribution. The creation of the SSN accounts allowed the
government to take our commercial energy and use it to keep the
nation’s economy moving forward in the bankruptcy, while at the
same time not being guilty of fraud or theft. They borrowed against
[mortgaged] our future energy thereby putting us at risk
and they have to reimburse us.
owe us, and therefore, we have a pre-paid account with the UNITED
STATES FEDERAL CORPORATION because we are the creditors and it is the
debtor. The SSN is to track our claims against the UNITED STATES and
is the record of an invisible ‘trust account’ on the private side
which they will never admit to publicly. The CAFR [Comprehensive
Annual Financial Report] is the accounting that keeps track of the
people’s contributions and the earnings on those contributions and
is currently estimated at 60 to 100 trillion dollars. [see cafr1.com]
(Accepted for Value) applies when a demand is made for payment with
implied consideration. If there is no original wet-inked signed
contract where both parties offer consideration, then there is
no demand possible, only demand w/ implied consideration which,
according to the UCC [Uniform Commercial Code], holds inherent risk
to the issuer; if the instrument is accepted as consideration
AND returned for value THE ISSUER IS LIABLE FOR THE BILL. That is
where the “payment” comes from.
the bankrupt economy whoever brings a liability has to bring the
remedy. Whoever hands you a bill has to hand you the check to pay for
it! Write the Accepted for Value verbiage on the statement and/or
just write a private issue Money Order on the coupon part of the bill
because they know we are accepting and returning it for value, and
send it to Treasury to have it set off. The only way
that utility company got built is that they mortgaged(borrowed
against) our property and future labor compensation [only
corporations have “income” so they can be taxed], so, everything
since 1933 is Pre-Paid. There is no need for us to pay twice!
the property of this country now belongs to the state and will be
used for the good of the state.” FDR, 1933
gov claims ownership of everything. They hold title to all property
(land, homes, cars, etc.). They have mortgaged against our property
and against our future labor, but where is the consideration? The
only thing left to give back to us is the discharge of all so-called
debts. We are owed a line of credit!
true contract has “consideration” from both parties.
Consideration occurs when the bank, credit card company, whoever, has
actually offered you something and you offered to pay them back. Of
course we know the banks, credit card companies, whoever, do NOT
actually loan us anything! They use our signature to get funds (our
own credit!) from Treasury.
cannot have a binding contract on you based on the rule of valuable
consideration because everything government has came from you to
begin with. Therefore, no adhesion contract, which identifies you as
a public employee, could be binding upon you. All licenses are
adhesion contracts. They assume and presume we volunteer to be a
government employee/Trustee and volunteer to be under their
jurisdictional venue. If we take “advantage” of their benefits
then they presume correctly, unless we establish our status through
public declaration and get them to recognize and acknowledge our
status. [see Dennis Craig’s “do not detain” docs and watch the
Dean Clifford vids at youtube.com]
fact that they did not loan us anything can be proven with a VOD
(Validation of Debt) which they never will, or can, answer to our
satisfaction because they cannot show they actually loaned us
anything. A copy of the payments you made is NOT validation of a debt
“owed”. It does tell you how much to sue them for to get your
payments back and add that to the original amount of your credit they
borrowed when you took out a so-called car or house “loan.”
When they do not answer you by your deadline you default them and
present copies of those letters to the court, and collect double or
judges and politicians will not admit to all this because of the
chaos they believe will occur, and that we would probably hang them
for wasting our lives in meaningless jobs, when they were supposed to
be setting off our bills!
you receive a presentment [a so-called “bill”] in the mail there
is a statement part where you can write the A4V verbiage, and a
coupon part where you write the money order. There is no set wording,
but see my examples below and if you want, change it, adjust it, but
make it your own. I no longer think the A4V verbiage is necessary.
All they want is the “money.” Know what you are doing! Do NOT
stop making the minimum payment until you get a presentment that has
credit on it. If you want to pay off a 30 year mortgage you must a
for v the total payback amount if you expect the trustee to settle
all of the derivatives and close the account.
birth certificate is your receipt for the contract or trust
established with the government by your parents and which you take
over when you come of age. You are always the Beneficiary but you
also wear the hat of the Trustee when you discharge a debt (just
don’t tell the judge that).
have recently learned that the Trustee has “all the power” but I
have not confirmed that. So, in open court (public side) you are
Beneficiary, but in judge’s chambers (private side) you are Trustee
when you A4V. Or you may simply write a money order on their charging
instruments. Unfortunately for them they will not take in as much
“money” if they were to warehouse you as freight in their prison.
[Jean Keating says he wrote an International Bill of Exchange on a
napkin to get out of jail and they gave him a receipt and thanked
they drag you to their private-for-profit court which is just another
corporation and where living men and women have NO business being,
they assume and presume you are the Trustee who’s job it is to shut
up and pay the bills with your sweat equity. Establish your position
BEFORE going to court by certified mail and when they don’t rebut
your position [they wont!] send them a default letter thanking them
for agreeing with you and send them your fee schedule for being
kidnapped (arrested), confined (jail, hand cuffs) drug into court,
etc. If they want to fine you, order them to take care of it as your
Trustee or you can just A4V and/or money order it.
do the A4V and money order
all in red ink.
Most folks sign and date in blueink.
Use red! Its okay to get a stamp made but you may want to leave room
for signature and date. Instead of a signature I just put By: in
front of my printed name on the last VA medicine coupon I received
and they credited the account. Some say the printed name IS a
do not need to do a UCC 1, become a so-called secured party creditor,
trademark your name or declare sovereignty, which are all ridiculous
concepts, to do an A4V]
STATUTES AT LARGE OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA VOL. XLVIII CHAPTER
48 PAGE 112:
(a) every provision contained in or made with respect to any
obligationwhich purports to give the obligee a right to require
payment in gold or a particular kind of coin or currency is declared
to be against public policy. Every obligation, heretofore or
hereafter incurred shall be discharged in any coin or currency which
at the time of payment is legal tender for public and private debts.
(b) As used in this resolution, the term ‘obligation’ means any
obligation (including every obligation of and to the United States,
excepting currency) payable in money of the United States“.
31 UNITED STATES CODE §5118: (d) (2)
obligation issued containing a gold clause or governed by a gold
clause is discharged on payment (dollar for dollar) in United States
coin or currency that is legal tender at the time of payment. This
paragraph does not apply to an obligation issued after October 27,
of October 27, 1977 legal tender is no longer required and repayment
need only be made in equivalent kind; A negotiable instrument.”
Fidelity Bank Guarantee Trust of New York v Henwood, 307 U.S. 847
(1939). Public Law 95-147.
for Value and settlement of this accounting
recourse By: sign your name here, Authorized Representative
ID # 123456789 [SS# without dashes]
to U. S. Treasury
charge the same to whoever sent you the bill
October 20, 2011
to the order of: U. S. Treasury
Sixty three thousand eight hundred forty nine dollars and twenty one
the sum to Vendor’s Name
the memory of my account 123456789 [SS# without dashes]
recourse By: First-Middle: Surname, Authorized Signature
Settlor, Beneficiary, on behalf of
MIDDLE SURNAME 123-45-6789
where prohibited by law
in lawful money
sign your name here
people do it this way:
the statement write;
For Value Return For Value
TO THE US TREASURY
THE SAME TO
[your name in all capital letters]
[social security number with the dashes; 123-45-6789]
signature EIN# [social security number without the dashes; 123456789
all in blue ink]
the coupon charge/change it into a money order;
To the Order Of: The United States Treasury Date: 12/15/2011
thousand, twenty dollars and 86 cents $2,020.86
the back write;
SPECIAL DEPOSIT ONLY
IN LAWFUL MONEY PER 12 U.S.C. 411
TO THE DEPARTMENT OF THE U.S. TREASURY
it back to the vendor instead of charging back to your strawman
makes more sense to me if the bill has come with a coupon which means
they’ve already accessed your account and just need your signature
to “charge” the account so they can get paid. Always always
always on anything you sign put By: in front of your signature to
protect yourself. UCC 3-402.
been said that the printed name actually is a signature and therefore
the company that sent you the bill has already “signed” it
because their name is printed on it.
DEBTS NOT IN 2 OR 3
Technical Support Division, C/o Treasury UCC Contract Trust, Internal
Revenue Service, 1500 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20220
of the Treasury, IRS, Fresno, CA 93888-0102 [where one man has been
getting discharge for 6 years. See the file
Revenue Service, Criminal Investigation Division, P.O. Box 510000,
San Francisco, CA 94151
Medlock, DBA Operations Manager, successors or assigns, IRS, Accounts
Management, PO Box 149338, Austin, TX 78714
Smith says send it to the CID cause its their job to do the off set.
years we heard that people had success sending to Anna Medlock (who
may be retired) who was head of the “set off division” if there
is such a thing.
2 copies of the A4V’d “bill” one to send to the Vendor as a
courtesy (maybe they’ll do the right thing and do the set off) and
one for you to keep. I send the original to Treasury. You may also
send a cover letter telling your “employees” at Treasury what
you want them to do (see example), but it shouldn’t be necessary.
a notary send and receive for you as proof of service or you may send
it certified or just throw it in the mail. I plan to mail to all of
the first three listed above but I’ve also sent my VA medicine
bills only to Fresno and every bill I’ve received since has a
credit on it so I may just send to only one address. I just threw it
in the mail. My friend Mike had a $800 AT&T bill he did the A4V
and MO on and sent to San Francisco and it does not show up on his
credit report. M. Rasheed had the Treasury discharge a $63K student
loan. See the A4V folders at
myprivateaudio.com Doug’s A4V password is methis for other examples
and see the files section at yahoo group a4v.
included an example letter of instructions just to show you it ain’t
that hard to do. Use your brain! Think! Know what you are doing. It
ain’t rocket surgery or brain science. The cover letter is not
may test you to see if they can get you back into debtor thinking;
‘Oh gee they sent me a frivolous filing for $5,000.00 I
better pay my bills with my sweat equity money and forget the whole
thing.’ Don’t! Be the creditor that you already are. Search the
net for A4V, accepted for value, HJR-192, 31 USC 5118, Guaranty vs
Henwood, THE STATUTES AT LARGE OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA VOL.
XLVIII CHAPTER 48 PAGE 112. Read everything you can till you get
comfortable with the process. Make them pay/discharge our so-called
debts like they promised.
of the Treasury
Technical Support Division
Treasury UCC Contract Trust
Pennsylvania Avenue, NW
this money order for three thousand twelve dollars and thirteen cents
to set off the enclosed presentment.
respond after the set off. All responses in writing.
of the Treasury, IRS, Fresno, CA 93888-0102 [where one man has been
getting discharge for 6 years. See file;
Revenue Service, Criminal Investigation Division, P.O. Box 510000,
San Francisco, CA 94151
Medlock, DBA Operations Manager, successors or assigns, IRS, Accounts
Management, PO Box 149338, Austin,
or finding fault with this process send written verified objection
along with the original instrument within thirty (30) days from
receipt. Cite promulgated statutory provisions signed under penalty
of perjury and unlimited commercial liability. Response is required.
No response/silence is acquiescence and acceptance. No return of
original instrument is considered acquiescence and acceptance. UCC
where prohibited by law
do NOT have to send to every address! I send mine to Fresno and they
get discharged. I do think DC is the ‘correct’ place to send them
but I suspect they are very busy cause everyone sends them there.]
they don't do the discharge like they're supposed to send again and
mark it second payment, third payment, however many it takes. Or
after 1 or 2 attempts send a cover letter saying if not offset you
will be sending an 843 form for the over payments.]
best just to send it to the CID to begin with as it is claimed that
is their function]
the vendor hides the fact that the account has been discharged do a
FOIA to the IRS and to the vendor. If they kept that fact from you
then sue them.]
hurt to include a blank paper with a money order on it made out to US
Treasury for say $100,000.00]
the Dean Clifford videos at the youtube.com link below where he talks
about the name issue]
the A4V_various_opinions folder in the files section of yahoo groups
redemption by method and a4v]
gentleman in this video talks to an IRS agent on the phone who
appears to give him instructions on how to fill out an IRS coupon as
a money order as applied when ‘accepting for value’. The
video is a bit irritating to listen to as you will see what I mean so
if you want to skip ahead to the ‘meat of it all’ it begins just
or search for;
call to IRS: how to pay bills with just my signature*HOW TO DO A A4V
descend to the Level of a mere private corporation, and take on
the characteristics of a mere private citizen…where private
corporate commercial paper [Federal Reserve Notes] and securities
[checks] is concerned. … For purposes of suit, such corporations
and individuals areregarded as entities entirely separate from
Trust Co. v. United States 318 U.S. 363-371 (1942)
the Clearfield Doctrine is saying is that when private commercial
paper is used by corporate government, then Government loses its
sovereignty status and becomes no different than a mere private
such, government then becomes bound by the rules and laws that govern
private corporations which means that if they intend to compel an
individual to some specific performance based upon its corporate
statutes or corporation rules, then the government, like any private
corporation, must be the holder- in-due-course of a contract or
other commercial agreement between it and the one upon whom demands
for specific performance are made.
further, the government must be willing to enter the contract or
commercial agreement into evidence before trying to get to the court
to enforce its demands, called statutes.
case is very important because it is a 1942 case after the Erie RR v.
Tomkins 304 U.S. 64, (1938) case in which the Legislatures and
Judiciary changed from legislating under “Public Law”, which was
in consonance with the Constitution, to legislating under “Public
Policy” according to the wishes of the “Creditors of the US
Every Nation on Earth today began from a former nation(s) or family(s) that was bearing one free national name(s). To every Nation there is a divine origin manifested through the inheritance of their Forefathers. Noble Drew Ali instructed the Moorish People there is a divine origin to every nation of hue because they are the children of one Father (See: Appendix MHK; Chpt 25). This means that the nations began from infinite to the finite earth plane which they call Mother. And to the source from which all nations must return, they call father (Allah). The path upon which each nation is given in which to be themselves and return to the Self is called their Creed or Religion…..When nations honor their Creator and the Earth, this is called, “Honoring thy Father and thy Mother” (MHK 48:9). (The Exhuming of a Nation, Page 187)
NATION. A people, or aggregation of men, existing in the form of an organized jural society, usually inhabiting a distinct portion of the earth, speaking the same language, using the same customs, possessing historic continuity, and distinguished from other like groups by their racial origin and characteristics, and generally, but not necessarily, living under the same government and sovereignty. Montoya v. U. S., -180 U.S. 261, 21 S. Ct. 358, 45 L.Ed. 521; Worcester v. Georgia, 6 Pet. 539, 8 L.Ed. 483; Republic of Honduras v. Soto, 112 N.Y. 310, 19 N.E. 845, 2 L.R.A. 642.
Besides the element of autonomy or self-government, that is, the independence of the community as a whole from the interference of any foreign power in its affairs or any subjection to such power, it is further necessary to the “constitution of a nation” that it should be an organized jural society, that is, both governing its own members by regular laws, and defining and protecting their rights, and respecting the rights and duties which attach to it as a constituent member of the family of nations. Such a society, says Vattel, has her affairs and her interests; she deliberates and takes resolutions in common; thus becoming a moral person, who possesses an understanding and will peculiar to herself, and is susceptible of obligations and rights. Vattel, §1 1, 2.
The words "nation" and "people" are frequently used as synonyms, but there is a great difference between them. A nation is an aggregation of men speaking the same language, having the same customs, and endowed with certain moral qualities which distinguish them from other groups of a like nature. It would follow from this definition that a nation is destined to form only one state, and that it constitutes one indivisible whole. Nevertheless, the history of every age presents us with nations divided into several states. Thus, Italy was for centuries divided among several different governments. The people are the collection of all citizens without distinction of rank or order. All men living under the same government compose the people of the state. In relation to the state, the citizens constitute the people; in relation to the human race, they constitute the nation. A free nation is one not subject to a foreign government, whatever be the constitution of the state; a people is free when all the citizens can participate in a certain measure in the direction and in the examination of public affairs. The people are the political body brought into existence by community of laws, and the people may perish with these laws. The nation is the moral body, independent of political revolutions, because it is constituted by inborn qualities which render it indissoluble. Page 2 of 2
What is NATIONALITY? That quality or character which arises from the fact of a person’s belonging to a nation or state. Nationality determines the political status of the individual, especially with reference to allegiance; while domicile determines his civil status. Nationality arises either by birth or by naturalization. According to Savigny, “nationality” is also used as opposed to “territoriality,” for the purpose of distinguishing the case of a nation having no national territory; e. g., the Jews. 8 Sav. Syst. (Black's Law Dictionary 2nd Ed) NATIONALITY. The state of a person in relation to the nation in which he was born; a man retains his nationality of origin during his minority, but, as in the case of his domicile of origin, he may change his nationality upon attaining full age; he cannot, however, renounce his allegiance without permission of the government. See Citizen; Domicil; Expatriation; Naturalization; Foelix, Du Dr. Intern. prive, n. 26; 8 Cranch, 263; 8 Cranch, 253; Chit. Law of Nat. 31 2 Gall. 485; 1 Gall. 545.
UN DECLERATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS: Article 15 1. Everyone has the right to a nationality. 2. No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his nationality nor denied the right to change his nationality. Article 16 1. Men and women of full age, without any limitation due to race, nationality or religion, have the right to marry and to found a family. They are entitled to equal rights as to marriage, during marriage and at its dissolution. 2. Marriage shall be entered into only with the free and full consent of the intending spouses. 3. The family is the natural and fundamental group unit of society and is entitled to protection by society and the State.
STATES and NATIONS The state is the people organized into a political body. Lalor, Pol.Enc. s. In American constitutional - law the word "state" is applied to the several members of the American Union, while the word "nation" is applied to the whole body of the people embraced within the jurisdiction of the federal government. Cooley, Const.Lim. 1; Texas v. White, 7 Wall. 720, 19 L. Ed. 227.
Nations or states are independent bodies politic; societies of men united together for the purpose of promoting their mutual safety and advantage by the joint efforts of their combined strength; but every combination of men who govern themselves, independently of all others, will not be considered a nation; a body of pirates, for example, who govern themselves, are not a nation. To constitute a nation another ingredient is required. The body thus formed must respect other nations in general and each of their members in particular. Such a society has her affairs and her interests; she deliberates and takes resolutions in common; thus becoming a moral person who possesses an understanding and will peculiar to herself, and is susceptible of obligations and rights. Vattel, Prelim. §1, 2; 5 Pet. S. C. R. 52. (Bouvier's Law Dictionary 1856 Edition)